- Yankeemagazines |
The first solo-exhibition of German fashion designer Jil Sander opened in Frankfurt on November 4. Jil Sander worked for one and a half years developing the exhibition which strives to be more than just a retrospective. Instead, she decided to create a new piece of work using fashion, light and sound which blends in seamlessly with Richard Meier’s museum building.
The multifaceted oeuvre of one of the most influential designers of her generation unfolds across 3,000 square metres and has been divided into the spaces such as catwalk, collection, or architecture.
Jil Sander engaged intensely with material from research to the development of new fabrics and this shows in the “Studio”. She liberated women from ephemeral decor by combining delicate cashmere and subtle colored fabrics to simple designs that shall protect the wearer.
“If, in my long experience of design, a personal signature may have emerged, then it is in pattern making. These are my own formulas, which I repeatedly perfect and above all re-design. What in the end looks simple and obvious is the result of long experimentation.”
Decades after their first presentation, Jil Sander’s dresses, coats and shoes still seem up-to-date and wearable. Her exhibition is named “Present” as it shows a fully new oeuvre and how timeless her designs presently are.
“A fashion show is the magical realm of first impressions. Style comes into being because it is presented as such. ”
Jil Sander set a new standard in the fashion world when she opened her flag ship store in the Avenue Montaigne Nr. 50 in Paris. The use of lighting that spills diffusely from behind tapered “flying walls” is a part of her architectural work that also included garden art.
“One needs to be sensitive to architectural conditions and resist the temptation tp filly any spatial void.”
Style and Art
The German designer has also engaged with contemporary art. She used motives of the Italian artist Alighiero Boetti for her spring summer collection 2014.
“With photographers such as Irving Penn, Peter Lindbergh, Nick Knight…, Jil Sander sweeps aside customary preconceptions about men and women, until only the vivid intensity of an ever-searching, contemporary individual remains.”
Jil Sander x Richard Meier
The style of the museum building by architect Richard Meier was one of the reasons for Jil Sander to show her exhibition in the Museum Applied Art, according to director Matthias Wagner K.
- Danielle Wightman-Stone |
Flamboyant French fashion designer Jean-Paul Gaultier is to celebrate 50 years of pop culture seen through his eyes with a new stage musical, Style Freak Show that will premiere in Paris next October, before going on an international tour.
Gaultier renowned for his theatrical catwalk shows, will be incorporating his “eccentric, scandalous, and provocative” personality into a stage show that combines cabaret with a fashion show at the at the iconic Folies Bergere theatre in Paris.
“This show is the story of my life, things I have experienced, seen and loved. And also stories that I have never told before!”
The show will feature everything from his childhood to his early career, including his greatest fashion shows to “wild nights” in Le Palace and London, as well as pay tribute to artists that have inspired him including pop icons Madonna, Kylie Minogue, and Mylène Farmer to film directors Pedro Almodovar and Luc Besson, and dancers Régine Chopinot and Angelin Prejlocaj.
“This show is the story of my life, things I have experienced, seen and loved. And also stories that I have never told before!” explains Gaultier. “I discovered the entertainment world at the age of nine while watching a Folies Bergère revue on TV and I found out what a fashion show was through Jacques Becker’s film, “Falbalas”, in which Micheline Presle falls in love with a fashion designer played by Raymond Rouleau. With the Style Freak Show, I intend to bring these two worlds together. It is very exciting to be given the opportunity to stage the revue in the Folies Bergère.”
Jean-Paul Gaultier to stage musical and fashion show in Paris from October 2018
For the ‘Style Freak Show’, which is described in the press release as a “grand party” where Gaultier “will surprise us yet again”, will feature ten new exclusive outfits designed by the French designer to incorporate within an exuberant scenography.
Gaultier has written the show, and will co-direct and produce the set design, in collaboration with actress, scriptwriter and director Tonie Marshall, who co-directs the show, and Marion Motin, who has worked with Madonna, on the choreography. The cast will be actors, dancers and circus artists, who will take to the stage and play “outlandish, passionate, larger than life, rude, sexy, sassy creatures and personalities”, explains the designer, while the music will range from disco to funk, pop and rock, basically the playlist of his life.
Describing what the show will cover, Gaultier said: “I will tackle new issues such as plastic surgery and the creatures it spawns, or the vanity fair of social media. All that has been an inspiration for a number of new costumes. Clothes can say so much about their time, the way we relate to femininity and masculinity, sexuality, about what we consider different and where the limits of society are.
“I want to show difference. For there is beauty to be found everywhere, it all depends on how one chooses to look at it. I’ve always loved freaks, weirdoes, agitators, the mixing of different aesthetics, the unexpected encounters. This transgressive energy will be on show for all to see. It will be about joy and dreams, I would like every member of the audience to leave in a happier mood than when they arrived. It’s going to be a huge party! I hope that the audience will enjoy the show just as much as I did when creating it.”
The ‘Style Freak Show’ will premiere on October 2, 2018, with tickets going on sale today, November 9 with tickets priced from 39 euros.
Image: courtesy of Jean-Paul Gaultier/Style Freak Show
- AFP |
It's the most sought after invitation in the celebrity universe -- and on Wednesday, Amal Clooney, Rihanna and Donatella Versace were named co-chairs of next year's glittering Met Gala in New York.
Held every year on the first Monday in May, the black-tie extravaganza is the chief source of income for the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Costume Institute, reportedly raising more than $13 million in 2016. Tickets are said to cost $30,000 each or $275,000 for a table, ruling out all but the most elite coterie of A-list Hollywood actors, best-selling music superstars, top models and fashion designers.
Clooney -- the British-Lebanese wife of Hollywood heartthrob George and new mother of twins -- is the 39-year-old feted as much for her fashion sense as her work as an international human rights lawyer. Rihanna, 29, needs no introduction as one of the biggest pop stars on the planet, also lauded for her bold style, and Versace is the 62-year-old legendary Italian designer and sister of Gianni, who was murdered in Miami in 1997. Vogue editor-in-chief Anna Wintour -- who has singlehandedly transformed the ball into the hottest ticket in town -- is also co-chair of the event, which will be held on May 7. But there's one person definitely not invited. Wintour told "Late Late Show" host James Corden last month that she would never invite back Donald Trump -- who has attended with wife Melania attended in the past, before he was elected US president. Wintour was a prominent Hillary Clinton fundraiser.
The theme is "Heavenly Bodies: Style and the Catholic Imagination," which the Museum also announced is the title of next year's exhibition at The Costume Institute. The exhibition, which will open May 10, will feature papal robes and accessories flown from the Vatican that will serve as the "cornerstone" and showcase the influence of liturgical vestments on designers, the museum said. Designers in the exhibition will include Balenciaga, Chanel, Givenchy, Karl Lagerfeld, the Versaces and Vivienne Westwood. (AFP)
- Kristopher Fraser |
The Metropolitan Museum of Art has announced that The Costume Institute's spring 2018 exhibition will be Heavenly Bodies: Style and the Catholic Imagination, on view from May 10 through October 8, 2018 (preceded on May 7 by The Costume Institute Benefit). Presented at The Met Fifth Avenue in both the medieval galleries and the Anna Wintour Costume Center, the show will also occupy The Met Cloisters. The thematic exhibition will examine fashion's ongoing engagement with the devotional practices and traditions of Catholicism. A group of papal robes and accessories from the Vatican will travel to the United States to serve as the cornerstone of the exhibition.
"The Catholic imagination is rooted in and sustained by artistic practice, and fashion's embrace of sacred images, objects, and customs continues the ever-evolving relationship between art and religion," said Daniel H. Weiss, president and CEO of The Met. "The Museum's collection of religious art, in combination with the architecture of the medieval galleries and The Cloisters, provides the perfect context for these remarkable fashions."
The Met's next Costume Institute exhibit to focus on fashion and Catholicism
Next year's Met Gala will be co-chaired by Amal Clooney, Rihanna, Donatella Versace, and Anna Wintour. Christine and Stephen A. Schwarzman will serve as honorary chairs. The event is The Costume Institute's main source of annual funding for exhibitions, publications, acquisitions, and capital improvements.
"Style and religion have long been intertwined, mutually inspiring and informing one another," said Andrew Bolton, curator in charge of The Costume Institute. "Although this relationship has been complex and sometimes contested, it has produced some of the most inventive and innovative creations in the history of fashion."
The exhibition will feature approximately 50 ecclesiastical masterworks from the Sistine Chapel sacristy, many of which have never been seen outside the Vatican. These will be on view in the Anna Wintour Costume Center galleries and will include papal vestments and accessories, such as rings and tiaras, from the 18th to the early 21st century, encompassing more than 15 papacies. The last time the Vatican sent a loan of this magnitude to The Met was in 1983, for The Vatican Collections exhibition, which is the Museum's third most-visited show.
In addition, approximately 150 ensembles, primarily womenswear, from the early 20th century to the present will be shown in the medieval galleries and The Met Cloisters alongside religious art from The Met collection, providing an interpretative context for fashion's engagement with Catholicism. The presentation situates these designs within the broader context of religious artistic production to analyze their connection to the historiography of material Christianity and their contribution to the perceptual construction of the Catholic imagination.
Designers in the exhibition will include Azzedine Alaïa, Cristobal Balenciaga, Geoffrey Beene, Marc Bohan for Dior, Thom Browne, Roberto Capucci, Callot Soeurs, Jean Charles de Castelbajac, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel, Maria Grazia Chiuri for Dior, Dolce & Gabbana, John Galliano for Dior, Jean Paul Gaultier, Givenchy, Craig Green, Madame Grès for Alix Barton, Rei Kawakubo for Comme des Garçons, Christian Lacroix, Karl Lagerfeld for Chanel, Jeanne Lanvin, Shaun Leane, Claire McCardell, Laura and Kate Mulleavy for Rodarte, Thierry Mugler, Norman Norell, Guo Pei, Maria Grazia Chiuri and Pierpaolo Piccioli for Valentino, Pierpaolo Piccioli for Valentino, Elsa Schiaparelli, Raf Simons for both his own label and Dior, Riccardo Tisci for Givenchy, Jun Takahashi for Undercover, Isabel Toledo, Philip Treacy, Donatella Versace for Versace, Gianni Versace, Valentina, A.F. Vandevorst, Madeleine Vionnet and Vivienne Westwood.
Photos: Image 1 (left): El Greco, Cardinal Fernando Niño de Guevara (1541–1609), ca. 1600, oil on canvas; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929 (29.100.5); Image © Metropolitan Museum of Art
Image 2 (right): Evening Coat, Cristobal Balenciaga for House of Balenciaga, autumn/winter 1954–55; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. Bryon C. Foy, 1957 (C.I.57.29.8); Image courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Digital Composite Scan by Katerina Jebb.
- Danielle Wightman-Stone |
The Victoria and Albert museum (V&A) has announced that its next fashion exhibition taking place from April next year will trace the “complex relationship” between fashion and the natural world since 1600.
The exhibit, 'Styleed from Nature’, will run from April 21, 2018 until January 27, 2019, and will showcase contemporary designers of “desirable, creative and sustainable popular fashion” to examine how fashionable dress recurringly draws on the beauty and power of nature for inspiration.
Supported by the European Confederation of Flax and Hemp - CELC Style, the exhibition will feature more than 300 garments and accessories from designers including Christian Dior, Dries van Noten, Philip Treacy, Stella McCartney, Christopher Raeburn, Calvin Klein, Gucci, Giles Deacon, and Jean Paul Gaultier.
It will explore how fashion’s processes and constant demand for raw materials damage the environment, featuring campaigners and protest groups that have effectively highlighted this issue such as Style Revolution and Vivienne Westwood. It will also look at the role of design in creating a better, more sustainable fashion industry.
There will be a section drawing attention to the use of innovative fabrics, such as how Vegea use grape waste from the wine industry to form a leather-substitute and their Grape gown will be on show, as will a Ferragamo ensemble made from ‘Orange Fiber’ derived from waste from the Italian citrus industry and a H&M Conscious dress made from recycled shoreline plastic.
Other highlights include a pineapple fibre clutch-bag, Emma Watson’s Calvin Klein Met Gala 2016 dress made from recycled plastic bottles, an upcycled dress by Christopher Raeburn, a cape of cockerel feathers and an haute couture dress designed by Giles Deacon in 2016 featuring a pattern of delicate bird’s eggs.
A look to the past 400 years of fashion will also be explored by the exhibition to see what fashion has learnt from practices in the past, with objects dating to the early 1600s. Items include an 1875 pair of earrings formed from the heads of two real creeper birds and a 1860s muslin dress decorated with the iridescent green wing cases of hundreds of jewel beetles. They will be shown alongside natural history specimens to indicate the ways fashion has used animal materials in its designs and production.
Victoria and Albert to host ‘Styleed from Nature’ from April 2018
The exhibition will also focus on the raw materials used in the production of fashion. Arranged chronologically, it will introduce the main fibres used in the 17th and 18th centuries such as silk, flax, wool and cotton, as well as now controversial materials like whalebone, demonstrated by an X-ray by Nick Veasey of a pair of 1780s stays, and turtle shell, used in a fan from 1700.
This will lead into the expansion in international trade, import of precious materials, and the introduction of man-made materials, which brought fashionable dress to the masses but also contributed to the air and water pollution to which the textile industry is such a significant contributor.
The environmental impact of fashion will be highlighted by a bold display of posters, slogan clothes and artworks showing how protest movements have helped draw attention to the harmful side of fashion. Figures like Vivienne Westwood have popularised these issues and a mannequin will pay homage to an outfit worn by her whilst protesting against climate change.
The exhibition will also present a range of solutions to reducing fashion’s impact on the environment from low water denim and using wild rubber to more conceptual and collaborative projects. These include a dress grown from plant roots by the artist Diana Scherer, who uses seed, soil and water to train root systems into textile-like material, a bio-luminescent genetically-engineered silk dress created by Sputniko!, the MIT Lab and the National Institute of Agricultural Science (NIAS), South Korea, and a tunic and trousers made from synthetic spider silk from Bolt Threads x Stella McCartney.
There will also be two interactive installations from the Centre for Sustainable Style at London College of Style, which have acted as special advisors to the exhibition, that will explore ‘Style Now’ and ‘Style Future.’
‘Style Now’ will take five iconic contemporary fashion pieces and using sensors, visitors will be able to explore the unseen impact on nature of the construction, making, wearing and discarding of each item, while ’Style Future’ will immerse viewers into the fashion world of the future, inviting us to question what fashion means and show us a future we are yet to imagine.
‘Styleed From Nature’ is the latest in the V&A’s series of fashion exhibitions and follows Balenciaga: Shaping Style (2016–2017), Undressed: A Brief History of Underwear (2016–2017), Shoes: Pleasure and Pain (2015–2016) and Club to Catwalk: London Style in the 1980s (2013–2014).
‘Styleed From Nature’ will take place at the V&A from April 21, 2018 - January 27, 2019.
Images: courtesy of V&A, Stella McCartney, Rachel Mann, Matt Baron/ REX/ Shutterstock, and Greenpeace
- Vivian Hendriksz |
Luxury fashion etailer The Outnet.com has teamed up with The Ground Floor Project to host a unique photography exhibition. Entitled 'Posturing: Photographing the Body in Style' the group exhibition aims to examine and explore the role the female form has in contemporary fashion photography.
Showcasing a range of photographs from 2010 to 2017, this exhibition follows the movement in which the feminine body is captured in extraordinary poses, tracing the rise of a new aesthetic in fashion photography which continues to develop today.
Co-curated by Holly Hay and Shonagh Marshall from The Ground Floor Project, the photography exhibition is the first of a three-part partnership with The Outnet.com. The exhibition will include work from celebrated photographers such as Charlie Engman, Johnny Dufort, Marton Perlaki and Zoe Ghertner among others.
Their work will be showcased alongside seminal editorial images from the archives of British Vogue, The Gentlewoman, AnOther, i-D Interview, Double and Self Service. The exhibition has split the processes behind the images into five thematic areas, with each examining a different element within the creative process: casting, styling, location, props and layout.
'Posturing: Photographing the Body in Style' is set to open its doors to the public on November 2, at 10 Thurloe Place, London. It will run until November 12. The second part of the partnership between the Outnet.com and The Ground Floor Project will launch in December, with the third launching sometime next March.
Photo credit: Blommers & Schumm for the Gentlewoman
- Simone Preuss |
A new exhibition at the North Carolina Museum of Art (NCMA) in Raleight, NC, explores the 50-year history of the Ebony Style Fair, from 1958 to 2009. Called "Inspiring Beauty: 50 Years of Ebony Style Fair", the exhibition covers 50 years of beauty, style, and empowerment and showcases 40 stunning outfits by Christian Dior, Givenchy, Alexander McQueen and other directional designers. The exhibition will start tomorrow, 28th October 2017, and run through 21st January, 2018.
The Ebony Style Fair grew out of the pages of Ebony magazine, which was first published in 1945, and redefined the concepts of beauty, style, and empowerment for African Americans. "The fashion event provided transformative images of African Americans as beautiful and successful. Far more than a display of fabulous clothes, the show offered black women a vision of what they could wear and, ultimately, who they could be," remembers Ebony.
The exhibition, which was developed by the Chicago History Museum in cooperation with Johnson Publishing Company, features 40 stunning ensembles such as gowns, coats and suits by designers such as Stephen Burrows, Pierre Cardin, Christian Dior, Givenchy, Patrick Kelly, Christian Lacroix, Yves Saint Laurent, Bob Mackie, Alexander McQueen, b. Michael, Missoni, Jean Patou, and Vivienne Westwood.
The exhibition is accompanied by events such as a designer studio tour on opening day where visitors gain behind-the-scenes access to designers-in-residence Katherine Diuguid and Precious Lovell as they create haute couture in the gallery. They will learn about the design process and garment construction. Other events include the annual educator expo and Family Fun Saturdays when the whole family can try their hand at creating their own patterned and printed fabrics.Photos: Givenchy by Alexander McQueen, Tilmann Grawe cocktail dress; via NCMA website
- AFP |
Marrakesh - Visitors crowded through the doors Thursday as a museum to legendary fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent opened to the public in the Moroccan city of Marrakesh.
The museum's management said 1,000 people thronged through its exhibition halls in the first three hours to get a glimpse of some of Saint Laurent's most iconic creations as they went on display in the city that inspired him.
The opening comes just over a fortnight after another museum to the famed French couturier, who died in 2008, began working at the company's former headquarters in Paris.
The Moroccan project -- housed in a modernist building of traditional rose-coloured ochre bricks -- was a last labour of love for Saint Laurent's former business and life partner Pierre Berge, who died last month aged 86. The pair fell in love with Marrakesh after first visiting in 1966 when the city was hothouse of bohemian freedom that drew artists and musicians from Allen Ginsberg to the Rolling Stones.
Saint Laurent's imagination was fired by the colour and vibrancy that he found in Morocco and he bought a villa in Marrakesh that looks set to be opened to the public next year. "I owe to this country the audacity that has been mine ever since," a quotation by Saint Laurent projected onto one of the museum's walls read.
The 15-million euro (18 million US dollars) museum -- paid for from the sale of the designer's spectacular art collection -- is located close to the lush Majorelle Garden that he and Berge took over and restored in the 1980s. The museum's directors hope to attract some 300,000 visitors in the first year from the tourists that now throng the packed streets of modern Marrakesh. (AFP)
- AFP |
A fusion of Moroccan traditions and contemporary flair that inspired Yves Saint Laurent, a museum to the famed fashion designer is set to be unveiled Saturday in his beloved Marrakesh. Following three years of work, technicians carried out final checks in a minimalist exhibition hall at the venue in the city that helped shape Saint Laurent's imagination after he first arrived in the 1960s.
Iconic creations -- from the black "Le Smoking" tuxedo to the Mondrian dress -- will go on display, with the museum hoping to attract 300,000 visitors in its first year after it opens its doors on October 19. "Marrakesh was a place of inspiration for Yves Saint Laurent," said director Bjorn Dahlstrom as he surveyed the last touches being made. The legendary French couturier was entranced by the "ochre city" when he discovered the vibrancy and easy-going atmosphere of its busy streets, overlooked by the Atlas mountains, with his partner Pierre Berge in 1966.
"It was the place of our meeting, of our love, of our work together," said Berge, describing it as "a time when morals were free and sexuality more unbridled". After dedicating his final years to "transforming these memories into projects", the man who was both Saint Laurent's business and life partner, for some 40 years, died aged 86 in September.
When Saint Laurent came to Marrakesh, he was a designer known for working in black, but he said he "discovered colour" in the city and the traditional dress of the women. Along with Berge, he acquired a villa -- which their foundation also hopes to open next spring -- and in the 1980s took over the spectacular Majorelle Gardens, where a mausoleum was built to the designer after his death in 2008.
Along with his ground-breaking designs, the new museum also contains a wall of photographs retracing reclusive Saint Laurent's life and career, accompanied by the voice of his friend, the actress Catherine Deneuve. Marrakesh and its UNESCO-protected Old City is now packed with tourists from all over the world.
But back when Saint Laurent and Berge first arrived it was a draw for hippies and artists -- from the Beatles and the Rolling Stones to beat poet Allen Ginsberg -- attracted by the bohemian freedoms and drug-fuelled party scene.
The museum to Saint Laurent is housed in a contemporary building of rose ochre brick that intends to evoke both the traditional Moroccan culture that influenced Saint Laurent and his ground-breaking modernity. Funded by the money from the sale of YSL and Berge's remarkable art collection, it combines orientalist paintings from Jacques Majorelle, who died in 1962, with works by current artists from Morocco and the Middle East.
And while Berge -- the driving force behind the museum did not live to see it open -- it still bears his indelible stamp. "He saw everything, he followed it all from the beginning," said Berge's widower Madison Cox, who now runs the Pierre Berge-Yves Saint Laurent foundation. "This was a first for Pierre Berge, to build something from scratch. He rebuilt offices and houses, but here there was nothing except for an empty space." (AFP)
Photo: Studio KO, Musee Yves Saint Laurent, Marrakesh
- AFP |
With a wave of films, television series and art shows championing "gender fluidity" -- and catwalks awash with "gender neutral" models and clothes -- the old dividing line between the sexes is being increasingly called into question.
But as the blurring of boundaries has gone from the margins to being a progressive cause, the political temperature of the debate has risen sharply.
Gender fluidity has become a hot-button issue in the culture wars between liberals and conservatives, often reduced to newspaper stories over "which bathroom somebody chooses," said Johanna Burton, curator of the exhibition "Trigger: gender as a tool and a weapon" which has just opened at New York's New Museum.
"It is very much an exciting moment, but also a scary moment politically... Gender is in the forefront of people's thoughts right now," she added. "I think people have considered the limits of the binary construction of gender for a very long time, but only recently has it made the newspapers every day."
No one has put gender issues out there more than Bruce Jenner, the former decathlete and erstwhile member of the Kardashian clan, whose transition to becoming Caitlyn in 2015 pushed the subject into the mainstream. Time and National Geographic magazines have both devoted their covers to the transgender debate.
And later this month Conde Nast, the publishers of GQ, Vogue and Vanity Fair, will launch a new glossy magazine aimed at LBGTQ people (lesbian, bisexual, gay, transgender and questioning).
Hollywood too has played a part. First the Wachowski brothers, creators of "The Matrix" movie franchise, became the Wachowski sisters and then they cast transgender actress Jamie Clayton as a hacker in their hit Netflix series "Sense8".
One of the first places trans issues stepped out of the shadows was on stage. And next year's Avignon festival in France, the world's biggest theatre gathering, will be on the theme of "gender, trans identity and transsexuality".
"Gender doesn't exist anymore," according to Guram Gvasalia, the business brain behind fashion's ultra-hip label of the moment, Vetements, whose collections are all mixed.
"Man or woman, we can choose what we want to be," insisted Gvasalia, whose brother Demna Gvasalia designs for both the label and Balenciaga, where he has carried on the relaxed attitude to gender.
On the catwalks of Paris, New York and Milan, brands now regularly show "mixed" collections and many market their clothes as "gender fluid".
Philosopher Thierry Hoquet calls this the "Conchita Wurst phenomenon", after the bearded Austrian drag queen who won the Eurovision Song Contest in 2014. "Today some people mix masculine and feminine characteristics, and they do not need to be coherent," he said. While the author of the book "Sexus Nullus" claimed these "gender pirates" are very rare, he believes they are also very influential.
But this new emerging reality is not to everyone's taste. "There is a political battle being waged right now on the territory of gender," said the American historian Joan W. Scott, a specialist in women's history and gender studies.
"The 'forces of order' and 'anti-gender' groups -- the Vatican, religious fundamentalists, populists, nationalists, even some in the centre and on the left -- have organised to stop the spread of the idea that gender is fluid or flexible and always mutable," she said.
US President Donald Trump was quick to realise it was a hot-button issue which could shore up his conservative base. He banned transgender people from serving in the US Army in August and insisted on calling trans whistleblower Chelsea Manning a "he".
An uncrossable divide?
In France, large protests against the legalisation of gay marriage in 2013 included slogans like "Hands off our stereotypes!" They also spawned a movement to protect "traditional family values" and roles which later helped fuel a furore over false claims that a "theory of gender" was being taught in schools.
French sociologist Marie Duru-Bellat said that while trans issues have been embraced in the arts world, in society at large "there has been a hardening of attitudes", and a reinforcing of the idea of an uncrossable divide between men and women.
She said some Catholic groups are holding "masculinity support" workshops and pointed to how gender stereotypes are still very strong among children. "There are a lot of people for whom equality is about men and women complementing each other," said the academic, who wrote "La Tyrannie du Genre" (The Tyranny of Gender). "So for them, you cannot touch traditional gender models."
Photos: Gucci SS18, Catwalkpictures